The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is an American stock exchange on Wall Street in New York City. With a market cap of more than US$16 trillion, the NYSE is the world’s largest stock exchange, averaging US$169 billion in daily trading value in 2013. As of 2014, the NYSE (also known as “the Big Board”) has a listing of nearly 1,900 companies, 1,500 of which are U.S. companies. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange and is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
|HQ:||11 Wall St, New York, NY 10005, United States (Map)|
|Currency:||United States dollar|
|Founded:||May 17, 1792|
|No. of listings:||2,400|
|Indices:||Dow Jones Industrial, Average, S&P 500 and NYSE Composite|
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The origin of the New York Stock Exchange can be traced to May 17, 1792, when the Buttonwood Agreement was signed by 24 stock brokers on Wall Street in New York City under a buttonwood tree. On March 8, 1817, the organization drafted a constitution and renamed itself the “New York Stock & Exchange Board.” (This name was shortened to its current form in 1863.) Anthony Stockholm was elected the Exchange’s first president.
The floor of the New York Stock Exchange in 1908
The first central location of the Exchange was a room rented for $200 a month located at 40 Wall Street.
The building was destroyed in the Great Fire of New York (1835), after which the Exchange moved to a temporary headquarters.
In 1863, it changed its name to the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).
In 1865, it moved to 10-12 Broad Street.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) was created in 1896 by Charles Dow, co-founder of Dow Jones & Company, a financial news publisher. This figure was calculated by tracking the stock prices of twelve different companies and taking their average.
Published in The Wall Street Journal, the DJIA quickly became a popular indicator of stock market activity.
The volume of stocks traded increased sixfold in the years between 1896 and 1901, and the NYSE needed a larger space to conduct business.
Eight New York City architects were invited to participate in a design competition for a new building and the Exchange selected the neoclassic design from architect George B. Post. Demolition of the existing building at 10 Broad Street and the adjacent lots started on May 10, 1901.
- In 1792, NYSE acquires its first traded securities.
- In 1817, the constitution of the New York Stock and Exchange Board is adopted. It had also been established by the New York brokers as a formal organization.
- In 1863, the name changed to the New York Stock Exchange.
- In 1865, the New York Gold Exchange was acquired by the NYSE.
- In 1867, stock tickers were first introduced.
- In 1885, the 400 NYSE members in the Consolidated Stock Exchange withdraw from Consolidated over disagreements on exchange trade areas.
- In 1896, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) is first published in The Wall Street Journal.
- In 1903, the NYSE moves into new quarters at 18 Broad Street.
- In 1906, the DJIA exceeds 100 on January 12.
- In 1907, Panic of 1907.
- In 1909, trading in bonds begins.
- In 1915, basis of quoting and trading in stocks changes from percent of par value to dollars.
- In 1920, a bomb exploded on Wall Street outside the NYSE building. Thirty-eight killed and hundreds injured.
- In 1923, Poor’s Publishing introduced their “Composite Index”, today referred to as the S&P 500, which tracked a small number of companies on the NYSE.
- In 1929, the central quote system was established; Black Thursday, October 24 and Black Tuesday, October 29 signal the end of the Roaring Twenties bull market.
- In 1938, NYSE names its first president.
- In 1943, trading floor is opened to women.
- In 1949, the third longest (eight-year) bull market begins.
- In 1954, the DJIA surpasses its 1929 peak in inflation-adjusted dollars.
- In 1956, the DJIA closes above 500 for the first time on March 12.
- In 1957, after Poor’s Publishing merged with the Standard Statistics Bureau, the Standard & Poors composite index grew to track 500 companies on the NYSE, becoming known as the S&P 500.
- In 1966, NYSE begins a composite index of all listed common stocks. This is referred to as the “Common Stock Index” and is transmitted daily. The starting point of the index is 50. It is later renamed the NYSE Composite Index.
- In 1967, Muriel Siebert becomes the first female member of the New York Stock Exchange.
- In 1967, protesters led by Abbie Hoffman throw mostly fake dollar bills at traders from gallery, leading to the installation of bullet-proof glass.
- In 1970, the Securities Investor Protection Corporation was established.
- In 1971, NYSE incorporated and recognized as Not-for-Profit organization.
- In 1971, the NASDAQ was founded and competes with the NYSE as the world’s first electronic stock market.To date, the NASDAQ is the second-largest exchange in the world by market capitalization, behind only the NYSE.
- In 1972, the DJIA closes above 1,000 for the first time on November 14.
- In 1977, foreign brokers are admitted to NYSE.
- In 1980, the New York Futures Exchange was established.
- In 1987, Black Monday, October 19, sees the second-largest one-day DJIA percentage drop (22.6%, or 508 points) in history.
- In 1987, membership in the NYSE reaches a record price of $1.5 million.
- In 1989, On September 14, seven members of ACT-UP, The AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, entered the NYSE and protested by chaining themselves to the balcony overlooking the trading floor and unfurling a banner, “SELL WELCOME,” in reference to drug manufacturer Burroughs Wellcome. Following the protest, Burroughs Wellcome reduced the price of AZT (a drug used by people with living with HIV and AIDS) by over 30%.
- In 1990, the longest (ten-year) bull market begins.
- In 1991, the DJIA exceeds 3,000.
- In 1995, the DJIA exceeds 5,000.
- In 1996, real-time ticker introduced.
- In 1997, on October 27, a sell-off in Asia’s stock markets hurts the U.S. markets as well; DJIA sees the largest one-day point drop of 554 (or 7.18%) in history.
- In 1999, the DJIA exceeds 10,000 on March 29.
- In 2000, the DJIA peaks at 11,722.98 on January 14; first NYSE global index is launched under the ticker NYIID.
- In 2001, trading in fractions (n⁄16) ends, replaced by decimals (increments of $0.01, see Decimalization); September 11 attacks occur causing NYSE to close for four sessions.
- In 2003, NYSE Composite Index relaunched and value set equal to 5,000 points.
- In 2006, NYSE and ArcaEx merge, creating NYSE Arca and forming the publicly owned, for-profit NYSE Group, Inc.; in turn, NYSE Group merges with Euronext, creating the first trans-Atlantic stock exchange group; DJIA tops 12,000 on October 19.
- In 2007, US President George W. Bush shows up unannounced to the Floor about an hour and a half before a Federal Open Market Committee interest-rate decision on January 31; NYSE announces its merger with the American Stock Exchange; NYSE Composite closes above 10,000 on June 1; DJIA exceeds 14,000 on July 19 and closes at a peak of 14,164.53 on October 9.
- In 2008, the DJIA loses more than 500 points on September 15 amid fears of bank failures, resulting in a permanent prohibition of naked short selling and a three-week temporary ban on all short selling of financial stocks; in spite of this, record volatility continues for the next two months, culminating at 5 1⁄2-year market lows.
- In 2009, the second longest and current bull market begins on March 9 after the DJIA closes at 6,547.05 reaching a 12-year low; DJIA returns to 10,015.86 on October 14.
- In 2013, the DJIA closes above 2007 highs on March 5; DJIA closes above 16,500 to end the year.
- In 2014, the DJIA closes above 17,000 on July 3 and above 18,000 on December 23.
- In 2015, the DJIA achieved an all-time high of 18,351.36 on May 19.
- In 2015, the DJIA dropped over 1,000 points to 15,370.33 soon after open on August 24, 2015, before bouncing back and closing at 15,795.72, a drop of over 669 points.
- In 2016, the DJIA hits an all-time high of 18,873.6.
- In 2017, the DJIA reaches 20,000 for the first time (on January 25).
- In 2018, the DJIA reaches 25,000 for the first time (on January 4). On February 5, the DJIA dropped 1,175 points, making it the largest point drop in history.